Сравнительный анализ наиболее популярных моделей местного самоуправления



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The French Republic

Given that the state system of the Republic of France for a long time it was centralized and based on a strict hierarchy, at the beginning of this analysis, it should be noted that the local government in the mentioned European country almost did not exist until 1982, when the program started decentralization and enabling autonomy of local government. The degree of self-management of local authorities was extremely small, because the local government is exercised quite narrow scope of work in its own jurisdiction, which were of minor importance in relation to the tasks that fell into the Trust (transfer) scope of work. However, the advent of the presidency of the French Republic François Mitterrand in 1981, things in this respect are starting to change for the better, so that, from next year, in 1982 there was a significant independence of local governments and the process lasted until 2003 . year. This has affected the position of the French local government keep its trend to the present day, so that this form of organization of power in France is no longer an example of complete subordination to the central government. This situation shows that the local government, as well as many other institutions, is not static and unchangeable, but rather a very dynamic phenomenon, which is subject to constant changes. This was particularly contributed to the adoption of the Law on decentralization of 1982, when as part of the reforms implemented, established regions, which were given the status of self-governing units, which the local government has become a three-stage.

For the French Republic, which is one of the pillars of European democracy, it should be noted that, according to the surface, and according to population, one of the largest countries in Europe. Hence, in this country, a member of the European Union and one of its founders, has an important place both in terms of organization of local self-government, which has traditionally been a two-stage, given that in its grounds contained two local units - the municipality (commune) and department ( département). The introduction region (s) the eighties, as territorial units of general jurisdiction, the French local government has become a three-stage. It should be noted that in France there is the so-called. monotype municipalities, which means that all municipalities (both in cities and those in villages) have equal status. These municipalities (communes) are very numerous and there are more than 36,000, given that they fall into the category of very small units, but it should be noted that (although, admittedly, there is very little) in the municipality includes the towns numbering more than 50,000 inhabitants. Of course, it is important to note that three of the city, although they are in the commune, have a special status, which is quite understandable, given their importance, size, number of inhabitants and the like. These cities include Paris, as the capital, and next to him Lyons and Marseille, which unlike the other cities, can form within its area of urban districts (arrondissements). These districts within the three listed city, represent specific units of local government, and they were introduced by the Law of 1982, which was adopted by the French Parliament.

In this paper, we will not dwell on the historical development of local government in France, but it is certainly necessary to point out that the municipalities of the community, whose origin and development encountered in the Middle Ages, while the emergence of second level of local government responsible Napoleon Bonaparte, who formed departments, as some kind of connection, ie. “Links” between higher and lower levels of government (between the center and municipalities). Hence the departments represented the central government level, and their introduction to Napoleon’s system of organization of government, was, in fact, the deconcentration of power, because it is a strict hierarchy between the lower and higher authorities, represented the basic principle of establishing their relationship. This led to the fact that one of the most developed model of local government (the French self-governing communes) was repealed and replaced by a rigid centralism, so that this system was awarded a small degree of self-management, and the very term “local government (administration locale) hinted at the true state things“. (Jovicic, 1984: 171) However, it should be noted that you did not stop and that this devolution of something later replaced by a special form of self-government, which is called administrative decentralization, while during the existence of the Third Republic any attempt to find solutions that would constitute some sort of compromise between the local government and centralism. Further progress in achieving independence and the abandonment of the centralist state organization made in 1946, when the Constitution was adopted, which is the local government (the first time) received the constitutional and legal character. This is done in a way that was done declaring self-management of local collectives in which fall municipality and department, the most important event in this area was the adoption of the law made in 1982.

Wrapping up this part of our work is dedicated to the analysis of the French local government, we must be emphasized that local governments in France and England, who used to be diametrically opposed, gradually approaching, because the French model comes to light but secure decentralization, while in English the model comes to mild centralization. This means that increasingly abandoning strict hierarchical relationships between central and local authorities and embrace a different model of organizing the relationship between the central government and local governments. In fact, in recent decades applied a number of ways to overcome the existing situation in the field of French local governments, which include: 1) numerous proposals for enlarging municipalities voluntary merging small municipalities; 2) Association of Municipalities union of municipalities and 3) introduction of the region. However, it should be noted that this process is going quite slowly because there is a fear of the central government to make some significant steps to reform the municipalities, ie. their merger (fusion) in the broader territorial units. This fear exists with reasons such as enlarging the (incorporating) Municipality requires greater self-government and the wider decentralization, and this could lead to a weakening of the power of the central government. (Popovic, 1984: 18-23)

The second stage of organization represent the department (there are 100), and the French departments Handicraft has its roots in the French Revolution of 1789, led by the prefect of (PREF). The prefect is the representative of the central government and the executive organ of the general higher, but for this position, the person who enjoys great prestige and authority and has significant political prestige gained professional experience in their work. As already noted, the connection (link) between the department and the municipality represent districts, with what municipalities are subordinate departments, and through them the central authorities (ie, indirectly). On the other hand, the departments are directly responsible for their work to the central authorities and they are subordinate. Also, it is important at this point to mention that the representatives, and municipalities and departments (primarily, their presidents), important factors work of local authorities.

Analyzing the Local Governments in France, we pointed to the fact that the second stage of self-government is composed of 100 departments, but four of which are located far away from France, given that she was one of the greatest colonial countries. These are the overseas departments, which are also the regions, so that they have a dual status, while the remaining 96 departments located in France itself. All of these include the department, approximately the same number of municipalities (about 380), regardless of what they each are very different in terms of population, so that the smallest has about 75,000 inhabitants, most about 2,500,000 inhabitants (the average is around 450,000 inhabitants).

The third level of local government in France, or the third level of the system of self-government make the regions, which were created at mid-century, for smoother economic development departments and municipalities. However, it should be stressed that the regions are given self-governing status in 1982, when certain reforms have decentralized, so one can say that the regions in its present form, emerged only in the early eighties. Specifically, as part of three-tier local governments (in addition to municipalities and departments), regions have become the only in 2003, when the constitutional changes were made and when they were provided for by the Constitution. Here we should point out the fact that in the last months of 2008 announced new local government reform (the reform announced by then President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy), but in this area of further reforming of the French local government and the rest, because nothing has been done to today, because of the very strong opposition of local political power.

What is characteristic for the region, is the fact that the population in them is very different, and that is in the range of 1,000,000 to 5,000,000 (actually, less than one million to over 5,000,000), while their average area of around 25,000 square kilometers. Also, as a significant feature of local government in France is the fact that certain areas are special, that is. special status and this is not in accordance with the principle of regional organization of the state. The special status of certain areas is the result of certain events in the history of this major European states. This includes, first of all, decolonization, then the existence of cultural differences, as well as the characteristics of a large city (metropolis). However, it should be pointed out the fact that the French local self-government performs specific cooperation of local communities, which may be political cooperation (may take the form of political cooperation), and that there are other forms of cooperation. With the political cooperation of the municipality (which belong to the same political orientation) assist each other and form trade unions, districts, communities, municipalities and the like, and like other forms of cooperation may indicate conventions, groups of public interest, joint ventures, associations and the like.

It should be noted that a special role in the realization of political cooperation between the municipalities of trade unions, which is a term that refers to a group of municipalities, which shall be established precisely in order to resolve common problems of infrastructure (electric networks, water supply, sanitation, etc.). For the community of municipalities is significant that this is a relatively new form of inter-municipal cooperation, and in this form has allowed a greater degree of integration of the municipalities which form the community. The main objective of this association of municipalities, is the realization of inter-municipal solidarity (as a subset of the community of municipalities, can form communities and cities so far has established five such communities). Also, since 1959 there are districts, which include a lower degree of integration and municipalities may be established at the proposal of several municipalities, with what could be established for rural areas (hence abandoned the original proposal that called “alliance of cities “).



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