Сравнительный анализ наиболее популярных моделей местного самоуправления



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United States of America

Keeping in mind the theme of this work, which we posvâtiti its biggest part, in a new place we want only to point out the most important local government system, which had the greatest impact on the formation, development and dissemination of the importance of local governments in other countries. There, above all, think in English and French system (as two antipodes), as well as the German and the American system of local governments - Germany, due to the reforms made, which could serve as a model for reforming local governments in other countries and the US, due to its characteristics and distinctive specificity in relation to other countries. Therefore, we will further in the attention paid to the analysis of local government in the United States, which the local government is the most complex in the world, considering that in this country there are COD and simultaneously operate different types of local government.

In fact, as we saw in the previous section, in English, French and German local governments are unique types throughout the territory of the State in which they are applied, while the situation in the US is completely different, given that in this extremely large, country very organization of local self-government entrusted to the Member States (federal units) and not the federal (federal) state. The result of such an organization and the adopted constitutional principles, is the existence of large differences in local government and, as between Member States themselves, and within the same federal units. The existence of such a significant difference has been brought about not only indicated the possibility of regulations of the Member States, but also the great influence of English local government, whose institutions, customs and traditions brought from England’s first settlers. Finally, the reasons given diversity we must also mention the very great diversity of individual cities, a complex social life, a sudden and very rapid urbanization and the like. However, despite this diversity and the existence of different types of local government, we can say that in the United States are two main types, namely: 1) the urban form of government (characteristic of cities); 2) rural form of government (typical for rural areas).

What is important to note for local governments in the US, is the fact that the similarity, rather, there is a coincidence in degree. In fact, with the exception of only one country, which is the smallest by area (Roy Island), there’s a two-stage local government and so that municipalities (municipality), basic units, while the counties (county) unit of the second degree. Districts are traditional agricultural, territorial and administrative units, so that each member state has from 3 to 254 districts. It is important to point out the fact that, precisely, cities (in most federal units) the most important units of local government and to them there are three models of local self-government. Separate great influence on the development of local government in the United States had England (which can be said for the development of local government in the world), so it’s accepted the basic principle of self-organization of local government units, which further indicates that the local government in the United States does not constitute a category of the federal Constitution and federal law. These three main models (systems) local governments are: “1) model mer-council - the first and oldest model in which local voters directly elected mer and advice, and in this way to elect judges and administrative officials; 2) a commission model - sparsely body (Commission), which is directly elected by local voters, simultaneously legislative and executive authorities, so that every member of this commission is managed by an administrative department, 3) management model - experts prefer this third as the most appropriate model, which contains elements of a presidential system authorities “. (Bataveljic, 2013: 193) For this latest model is characterized by through open competition Assembly appoints managers for an indefinite period, which must meet numerous: first of all, it must be qualified and knowledgeable to perform these tasks, then that is not a member of a particular political party (non-partisan) and that As such, completely free and independent in the choice of the closest associates, as well as his engagement provided an appropriate contract, that guarantees an adequate payment for his work.

Analyzing the above models (systems), we will point to the fact that the oldest of them first, which draws its origins back to the English system of local self-government. In fact, this is a model that in the United States being applied and that in more than half of US cities, and it is a characteristic that is based on the existence of the president, ie. measures and advice. However, there is a real difference between the two versions where it is applied and the system operates as follows: 1) variant with a strong measure and 2) variant with a weak measure. Regardless of which option (variant) word, President, ie. mer is the most important organ, since it has very strong democratic legitimacy, because it directly elected by the citizens. Hence he (like the presidential system in the USA) the holder of numerous functions in the city, so that manages the city administration, represents the city, and his officers, the process as the executive organ of the Senate and head of administration. Hence, the president has a very important role, because preparing the most important decisions for adoption by the Senate, has a decisive role (not just representative) in solving a number of issues, so, therefore, safe to say that the President, that is. Custom has in the same status, responsibilities and functions, which has the President of the United States in the federation or the Governor in individual federal states. (Djordjevic, 1957: 35-38)

Much less applicable model is called. commission, whose application is linked to the beginning of the twentieth century, with the primary objective of its introduction consisted in the fact that the Commission monitor the efficiency of local authorities, as well as reducing the impact of party organizations in their work. There is no doubt that the Commission is one collegial body, whose members are directly elected by the citizens and which, therefore, can not recall them. As one of the most positive features of this system, we can mention its ease of organized bodies. In addition, he is very rational in the exercise of their activities, whose concentration is also a positive feature of a commission model. However, as it usually happens in all other spheres of social life, this system has numerous weaknesses, which consist primarily the inability to eliminate the influence of party organizations in local government, as well as in its lack of efficiency.

Consequently, the application of a third system that appeared later and which is used in a little over 20% of US cities. For this system (model) is characterized in that in it there are the two most important organs, namely: 1) Manager (city manager) and 2) higher (to be advised). The very name of the system speaks volumes about the manager (administrator) expert and the head of the administration in the city, which at that position comes not along political lines, but he Council elected as officials with the higher degree of efficiency and skills in order to implement the most important decisions and policy making. The characteristic of its position is in the fact that he was elected for an indefinite period, but advice has the right to revoke it if it does not carry out his duties, as provided. (Djurdjev, 2003: 46-48)

Finally, when talking about local government in the United States, we can not, not to mention self-government in small towns of New England, which is a specific model of local self-government in the United States, where the local government is realized in the so-called. town choirs. Namely, at such gatherings is, once in a year, brings together the entire population of the town and in that occasion, makes decisions on the budget, taxes, choice of certain borough officials, as well as on other important issues. Also, in the New England area, the districts are the judicial institutions of the organization, which is not the case with Western countries, where districts as territorial self-governing units have significantly more numerous functions (not only in the judiciary but also in health care, social protection, the construction of public roads and the like).



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